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The Chapter 12 Plan and Confirmation Hearing
Unless the court grants an extension, the debtor must file a plan of repayment with the petition or within 90 days after filing the petition. 11 U.S.C. § 1221. The plan, which must be submitted to the court for approval, provides for payments of fixed amounts to the trustee on a regular basis. The trustee then distributes the funds to creditors according to the terms of the plan, which typically offers creditors less than full payment on their claims.
There are three types of claims: priority, secured, and unsecured. Priority claims are those granted special status by the bankruptcy law, such as most taxes and the costs of bankruptcy proceeding.2 Secured claims are those for which the creditor has the right to liquidate certain property if the debtor does not pay the underlying debt. In contrast to secured claims, unsecured claims are generally those for which the creditor has no special rights to collect against particular property owned by the debtor.
A chapter 12 plan usually lasts three to five years. It must provide for full payment of all priority claims, unless a priority creditor agrees to different treatment of the claim or, in the case of a domestic support obligation, unless the debtor contributes all "disposable income" - discussed below - to a five-year plan. 11 U.S.C. § 1222(a)(2), (4).
Secured creditors must be paid at least as much as the value of the collateral pledged for the debt. One of the features of Chapter 12 is that payments to secured creditors can sometimes continue longer than the three-to-five-year period of the plan. For example, if the debtor's underlying debt obligation was scheduled to be paid over more than five years (i.e., an equipment loan or a mortgage), the debtor may be able to pay the loan off over the original loan repayment schedule as long as any arrearage is made up during the plan.
The plan does not have to pay unsecured claims in full, as long as it commits all of the debtor's projected "disposable income" (or property of equivalent value) to plan payments over a 3 to 5 year period ,and as long as the unsecured creditors are to receive at least as much as they would receive if the debtor's nonexempt assets were liquidated under chapter 7. 11 U.S.C. § 1225. "Disposable income" is defined as income not reasonably necessary for the maintenance or support of the debtor or dependents or for making payments needed to continue, preserve, and operate the debtor's business. 11 U.S.C. § 1225(b)(2).
Within 45 days after filing the plan, the presiding bankruptcy judge decides at a "confirmation hearing" whether the plan is feasible and meets the standards for confirmation under the Bankruptcy Code. 11 U.S.C. §§ 1224, 1225. Creditors, who receive 20 days' notice, may appear at the hearing and object to confirmation. Fed. R. Bankr. P. 2002(a)(8). While a variety of objections may be made, the typical arguments are that payments offered under the plan are less than creditors would receive if the debtor's assets were liquidated, or that the plan does not commit all of the debtor's disposable income for the three-to-five-year period of the plan.
If the court confirms the plan, the chapter 12 trustee will distribute funds received in accordance with the terms of the plan.11 U.S.C. § 1226(a). If the court does not confirm the plan, the debtor may file a modified plan. 11 U.S.C. § 1223. The debtor may also convert the case to a liquidation under chapter 7.3 11 U.S.C. § 1208(a). If the debtor fails to confirm a plan and the case is dismissed, the court may authorize the trustee to keep some of the funds for costs, but the trustee must return all remaining funds to the debtor (other than funds already disbursed to creditors). 11 U.S.C. § 1226(a).
On occasion, changed circumstances will affect the debtor's ability to make plan payments. A creditor may object or threaten to object to a plan, or the debtor may inadvertently have failed to list all creditors. In such instances, the plan may be modified either before or after confirmation. 11 U.S.C. §§ 1223, 1229. Modification after confirmation is not limited to an initiative by the debtor, but may also be made at the request of the trustee or an unsecured creditor.11 U.S.C. § 1229(a).
2. Section 507 sets forth 10 categories of unsecured claims which Congress has, for public policy reasons, given priority of distribution over other unsecured claims.